Primary Prevention Toolkit

Page Summary: 
Toolkit Overview
Primary Prevention Introduction
Working with Individuals (Individual Level)
Working with Peers and Families (Relationship Level)
Working with Communities (Community Level)
Work to Change Societal Norms and Values (Societal Level)
Resources

QUICK LINKS:

Toolkit Overview

The purpose of this toolkit is to share resources and knowledge that others have found useful in developing programs for primary prevention of intimate partner violence. The toolkit is organized by topics and resources, often website links, are listed under each topic. Inclusion of resources does NOT indicate endorsement of the material.

Many resources in this toolkit are for intervention or secondary prevention rather than primary prevention. Resources are included to inform your process. The process of developing primary prevention programming for your community will likely include integrating a number of materials throughout the toolkit that include primary prevention as well as secondary prevention materials/activities. We believe the reader is most often the best judge of which tools are most appropriate in their community and with their population.

This toolkit is organized in three main parts. First, we introduce the main concepts for primary prevention. Then, we describe primary prevention approaches on four levels of the Social Ecological Model. Finally, we include a reading and viewing list at the end with several additional resources.

This is a collective, growing toolkit. Please contact Brandy Carlson (carlson_brandy@fcadv.org) if you have resources or explanations that you would like to add to the toolkit to share with others.

Acknowledgements

This toolkit was developed in partial fulfillment of grant activities funded by the Florida Department of Children and Families and The Florida Coalition Against Domestic Violence.

The following representatives of the Florida Coalition Against Domestic Violence (FCADV) member centers volunteered and worked diligently to develop, organize, and compile this toolkit.

  • Kristin Atkins, Shelter House, Inc.
  • Christina Bates, Sunrise of Pasco County, Inc.
  • Kelly Bullard, Harbor House, OCCADV
  • Laura Farley, Sunrise of Pasco County, Inc.
  • Anna Guest-Jelley, Peaceful Paths Domestic Abuse Network, Inc.
  • Amy Hanes, Shelter House, Inc.
  • Terri O'Brien, Sunrise of Pasco County, Inc.
  • Jennifer Rey, Aide to Victims of Domestic Abuse
  • Emily Snipes, Shelter House, Inc.

Primary Prevention Introduction

  1. Key definitions
  2. Risk Factors
  3. Primary Prevention as Social Change
  4. Social-ecological model (SEM)
  5. Nine Prevention Principles
  6. Cultural Competence
  7. Working with diverse partners
  8. Evaluation
  9. Primary Prevention in Florida and Nationally

Key definitions

Primary prevention is any action, strategy or policy that prevents intimate partner violence from initially occurring. Primary prevention seeks to reduce the overall likelihood that anyone will become a victim or a perpetrator by creating conditions that make violence less likely to occur. Prevention of IPV focuses on preventing first-time perpetration and first time victimization.

Secondary and Tertiary prevention (often called intervention, or prevention) are efforts to identify and address early signs of abuse or abusiveness (secondary) or even to change individuals who are already abused or abusive (tertiary) in order to reduce the consequences of abuse and prevent recurrence.

Intimate partner violence includes physical violence, sexual violence, threats of physical or sexual violence, psychological/emotional abuse, financial abuse, and stalking between those who are or have been involved in a marital, sexual, or dating relationship.

Risk Factors

Far more is known about risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration than victimization. Also, prevention programs appear far more successful at preventing perpetration than victimization. Perhaps this is because perpetrators are ultimately responsible for their actions, and it is difficult for another person to anticipate and control an abuser's actions. The World Health Organization identified several risk factors associated with a man's risk for abusing his partner (Krug, Dahlberg, Mercy, Zwi, & Lozano, 2002). Based on the same research evidence, the Kansas Coalition Against Domestic Violence identified additional risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration. Still, these risk factors likely represent an incomplete list. Some example risk factors that primary prevention seeks to address across different levels of the social ecological model are:

  • Individual
    • Belief in strict gender roles
    • Desire for power and control
  • Relationship
    • Abuses of power
    • Dominance and control of the relationship by one partner over the other
  • Community
    • Negative portrayal of women in the media
    • Weak community sanctions against domestic violence perpetrators
  • Societal
    • Institutional structures that promote unequal power between men and women
    • Traditional gender norms

The group most at risk for perpetration of IPV is men, while the group most at risk of IPV victimization is women. For example, at the societal level, risk factors for perpetration and victimization include historical and societal patterns that glorify violence against women, institutional structures that promote unequal power between men and women, and negative portrayal of women in the media.

Addressing these risk factors requires diverse strategies. Primary prevention strategies and specific activities are those directed at the general population, or a subset of the general population, designed to promote healthy, non-violent relationships. Examples of primary prevention strategies include working with men and boys to confront norms of masculinity, promoting positive relationship skills and attitudes of youth at individual and community levels, and school policies on responding to sexualized bullying.

A through understanding of this multi-layered topic is essential for primary prevention programmers, community partners and community members engaged in primary prevention work.

The Primary Prevention Approach with Youth:
The Primary Prevention Approach seeks to prevent youth from ever becoming victims or perpetrators of domestic violence by giving them the skills and knowledge to build healthy relationships. A second key component is working in communities to create positive changes that discourage violence and support their efforts to create healthy relationships.

Primary prevention is a process based on implementing programs and raising awareness on multiple levels of society simultaneously. Initially, individuals (youth) build the tools necessary to form healthy relationships, and then the people they have relationships with (peers, parents, teachers and mentors) build the tools necessary to support them in forming healthy relationships. At the same time, we are working on changing community attitudes and values that promote violence (gender stereotypes, etc.), and societal norms (legislative policy, laws, etc.) that promote domestic violence.

What Primary Prevention is:

  • Health promotion based.
  • Based on skill and knowledge building.
  • An on-going process, which requires leadership & commitment.
  • Community owned and integrated into the fabric of the community.

What Primary Prevention is not:

  • A one-time educational program or event.
  • One skill-building session.
  • A program that is entirely planned, implemented and evaluated by the local domestic violence agency.

Follow this link for the FCADV introductory primary prevention training PowerPoint presentation.

Primary Prevention as Social Change

Primary prevention is about preventing intimate partner violence before it begins. When we look at our communities we can see our intervention services empowering people who have already experienced IPV. In order to see less people needing our intervention services, though, we need to start prevention earlier; this means working with young people. It also means collaborating with social change allies in the community because we know that IPV is supported by many forms of oppression, including sexism, racism, classism, heterosexism, ableism, etc. Some of the ways that this support is manifested include gender stereotypes (e.g. men as the "head of the household," unequal pay, boys should always be "tough," etc.) and media (e.g. sexist and racist depictions of minorities, "glamorizing" violence against women, etc.). The resources listed below are intended to provide examples of how and why primary prevention = social change.

Website resources:

Social-Ecological Model (SEM)

The Social Ecological Model (SEM) is widely used in Public Health to address health promotion. Applied to intimate partner violence (IPV), SEM offers a promising approach to sustainable and effective programming. SEM is a framework for understanding how multiple levels of influences affect a social problem like intimate partner violence. IPV primary prevention works on four interrelated levels to decrease likelihood for intimate partner violence perpetration or victimization. The individual level includes factors such as an individual's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. The relationship level includes peer and family influences, or the influence of other individuals such as teachers, coaches, employers, or mentors. The community level involves the local context such as community norms about relationships and violence. Community settings include neighborhoods, schools, and workplaces. Finally, the societal level includes broader social and cultural norms and values about violence, gender, and relationships.

The SEM holds that there are multiple factors or levels which influence a person's likelihood to perpetrate or be victimized by IPV. These four levels include the individual level, the relationship level, the community level, and the societal level. According to the theory, since each level influences the outcome of IPV, it is important to design and implement prevention programs that address each level. We have included information on the SEM in this toolkit for multiple reasons. One reason is to provide you with a better understanding of each of the four levels and how they interact. Additionally, this information will be able to help you determine which level of the SEM your prevention activities are addressing and lastly, this information should be able to help you create more effective prevention programs.

Examples of Primary Prevention interventions in the Social Ecological Model (SEM):

  • Individual Level - mentoring and skill building programs geared towards individuals.
  • Relationship Level - parent, teacher, coach, and mentor training on supporting youth as they build healthy relationships.
  • Community Level - community awareness campaigns, social norms/attitude change campaigns.
  • Societal Level - large scale media campaigns, policy changes.

Resource
Deconstructing Male Violence Against Women: The Men Stopping Violence Community-Accountability Model. (2008) Ulester Douglas, Dick Bathrick, Phyllis Alesia Perry. Violence Against Women.

Nine Prevention Principles

Building on the social ecological model and learning theories, nine prevention principles guide FCADV's primary prevention programs:

  1. Prevention program planning, implementation, and evaluation should address all levels of the social-ecological model (individual, relationship, community, and society).
  2. Strategies should include multiple teaching methods, including some type of active, skills-based component.
  3. Participants need enough exposure to have desired effects. Research shows that changes in attitudes and behaviors need at least 7-9 "doses."
  4. Prevention strategies should have a scientific justification or logical rationale. For example, base program planning on behavior and social change theories.
  5. Programs should foster strong, stable, positive relationships between children/ youth and adults, youth and youth, adults and adults.
  6. Program activities should happen at a time that will have maximal impact in a participant's life.
  7. Tailor programs to fit cultural beliefs and practices of specific groups and communities.
  8. A systematic evaluation is necessary to determine whether a program or strategy worked. This includes using results to inform future prevention programs and activities.
  9. Staff should be sensitive, competent, and should have sufficient training, support, and supervision before implementing programs.

Cultural Competence

Cultural Competence is a developmental process that results in individual, community and organizational understanding of cultural differences and similarities within, among, and between communities, cultures and populations. This competence requires drawing on the community-based values, traditions, and customs to work with knowledgeable persons of and from specific populations in developing specific strategies and communications to address their needs (Adapted from CDC, The National Public Health Performance Standards Program).

In practice, cultural competency is a process of building capacity to understand, respect and work effectively with individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds (competency in working with one population does not necessarily equal competency to work with a different population). Working effectively across cultures demands that competent individuals and or organizations find effective ways to communicate with (verbally, in writing and through other forms of interpersonal communication) and implement relevant programs for/with persons from diverse cultures. Cultural competency is not something that an individual or agency be trained on once and achieve. Just as culture is fluid and evolves to reflect changes in groups' resources, tastes, laws, art and relationships, so too does one's level of capacity when it comes to understanding, communicating with and working with specific cultural groups. Cultural competency is a capacity that is achieved and maintained through intentional on-going efforts to learn about and engage with diverse populations.

Culturally competent primary prevention programming is relevant and accessible to intended populations. This principle is essential. If program planners do not have a sufficient level of cultural competence, programs can be irrelevant for intended beneficiaries.

Cultural competence is important throughout all levels of primary prevention programming. Here is a list of resources to assist you in your process.

Working with diverse partners

Primary Prevention involves an integrated relationship with a varied and diverse group of partners (e.g., civic organizations, faith community, military, schools, youth, etc.). Sometimes working with such a diverse group can and often present obstacles which must be creatively and delicately overcome. The key to remaining cohesive and productive with your partners involves constantly putting the goals of primary prevention on the forefront. There are underlying politics with agencies and organizations that almost have to be overlooked for the working relationship to be beneficial. There are so many advantages to working with a diverse group of people who represent various subsets of the population; the faith community, City employees, Criminal Justice System, Children and Family Services. The more diverse the partner the more beneficial to the cause and the goals of primary prevention.

Community Centers
Working with Community Centers operated by the City can be very successful and yet very difficult depending on the level of "buy in" from the center staff. I have found there must be an initial interest from the selected center's staff regarding prevention activities and their own community. Primary Prevention activities at the community centers, because of what Primary Prevention is, requires a desire to better themselves, their center and their community. The struggle exists when any amount of convincing takes place to partake in the activities. If the buy-in is not there, the success of the activities will be minimal. A recommendation would be to have community prevention trainings and focus on several centers and agencies. From there, identify those who express interest and explore the possibilities with those sites. Relationships with Community centers can offer an enormous amount of community support and increase the involvement of other partnerships (homeowners associations, local businesses). If done correctly, the success is enormous.

Working with men & boys
[key considerations coming soon]

Other Topics/Groups
[coming soon]

Evaluation

Evaluation is simply a process of collecting information about a program and its components in order to measure effectiveness (getting the desired result) and efficiency (running the program with the best use of resources). The evaluation process will help you to determine if you are successfully doing what you set out to do as well as indicate whether or not your program activities had the desired effect you were hoping to see. There are many ways to conduct an evaluation, multiple types of evaluations, as well as numerous reasons why conducting evaluations are important and necessary. We included this section in the toolkit in order to help you understand the basics of evaluation and to hopefully make the evaluation process less intimidating, much more approachable, and maybe even a little fun!

Key terms:

  • Attribution - progress on goals and objectives are shown to be related to your program. Use to describe your Effectiveness/Outcomes.
    • Dosage - Clients have enough intervention exposure to result in intended outcomes.
    • Fidelity - Actual interventions implementation match intended implementation.
    • Reach - Intervention reaches a sufficiently large number of clients to analyze data.
    • Stability - Intervention did not change during the evaluation.
  • Effectiveness - program achieving the goals and objectives it was intended to accomplish. Use to describe your Effectiveness/Outcomes.
  • Efficiency - program activities are being produced with appropriate use of resources such as budget and staff time. Use to describe your Implementation/Process.

General Information on Program Evaluation

Resources on Outcome Evaluation

Resources on Process Evaluation

Questionnaires in manuals or the literature

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Division of Violence Prevention. (2005). Measuring violence-related attitudes, behaviors, and influences among youths: A compendium of assessment tools (2nd ed.). Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/pdf/YV/CDC_YV_Intro.pdf
  • Ku, C. L., Pleck, J. H., & Sonenstein, F. L. (1994). Attitudes toward male roles among adolescent males: A discriminant validity analysis. Sex Roles, 30(7/8), 481- 501.
  • Chu, J. Y., Porche, M. V., & Tolman, D. L. (2005). The adolescent masculinity ideology in relationships scale: Development and validation of new measures for boys. /Men and Masculinities, 8, 93-115.
  • Foshee, V. A., Bauman, K. E., Arriaga, X. B., Helms, R. W., Koch, G. G., & Linder, G. F. (1998). An evaluation of Safe Dates, an adolescent dating violence program. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 45-50.
  • For Expect Respect: Barbara Ball, Evaluation Specialist (512) 356-1623 or bball@SafePlace.org

Sample evaluation tools from Florida sites

Primary Prevention in Florida and Nationally

Florida is a pioneer state in the prevention of intimate partner violence. Since 2002, the Florida Coalition Against Domestic Violence (FCADV) has worked with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop and implement Florida'sDomestic Violence Prevention Enhancement and Leadership Through Alliances (DELTA) program. The purpose of the DELTA program is to prevent first time perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence includes domestic violence between partners as well as dating violence. Preventing first-time occurrence is called primary prevention. There are currently fourteen US states taking part in the DELTA program: Alaska, California, Delaware, Florida, Kansas, Michigan, Montana, New York, North Dakota, North Carolina, Ohio, Rhode Island, Virginia, and Wisconsin. In Florida, the DELTA program is a collaboration of the Florida Coalition Against Domestic Violence, the DELTA State Steering Committee (Steering Committee), and six prevention programs in counties throughout Florida. The six local programs are located in Alachua, Okaloosa, Orange, Palm Beach, Pasco, Pinellas, and Walton counties. For more information and a history of the DELTA program, visit http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/DELTA/DELTA_AAG.pdf

In 2007, FCADV secured funding from Governor Charlie Crist to assist all 42 certified domestic violence centers in building local primary prevention programs. Florida is the first state in the nation to implement primary prevention of intimate partner violence on this level. Each center developed a 5-year plan that they all began to implement in 2008. Additionally, FCADV provides extensive training to all centers regularly to ensure the greatest level of success throughout the state.

The following resources can help you to understand the scope of the work being done here in Florida.

IPV primary prevention programs in Florida

Brandy Carlson, Prevention and Social Change Initiatives Coordinator
Ed Feaver, Chair, DELTA State Steering Committee
Pippin Whitaker, Empowerment Evaluator
Emily Snipes, Prevention Coordinator/Community Organizer
Kelly Bullard, Domestic Violence Prevention Coordinator
Marlene Rivera, DELTA Coordinator
Terri O'Brien, Director of Community Education & DELTA Coordinator
Liz Martin, Violence Prevention Advocate

IPV primary prevention programs in other states

Working with Individuals (Individual Level)

  1. Risk Factors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence
  2. Strategies

Risk Factors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence

Far more is known about risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration than victimization. Also, prevention programs appear far more successful at preventing perpetration than victimization. Perhaps this is because perpetrators are ultimately responsible for their actions, and it is difficult for another person to anticipate and control an abuser's actions. The World Health Organization identified several risk factors associated with a man's risk for abusing his partner (Krug, Dahlberg, Mercy, Zwi, & Lozano, 2002). Based on the same research evidence, the Kansas Coalition Against Domestic Violence identified additional risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration. Still, these risk factors likely represent an incomplete list. Several risk factors for the individual level of the social ecological model are:

Individual

  • Belief in strict gender roles
  • Desire for power and control
  • Emotional intimacy problems
  • Homophobia and heterosexism
  • Lack of empathy toward women
  • Low self-esteem
  • Perpetrating psychological aggression
  • Personality disorders
  • Witnessing or experiencing violence as a child
  • Young age

Strategies

Prevention curricula, based on evidence informed models; focus on building healthy and equitable relationships, assertive communication, gender stereotypes and anti-oppression. Prevention efforts target people who have not yet been perpetrators or victims of the violence; hence, the most effective population to target is young people. Adjusting curricula to be culturally relevant is extremely important in working with youth. It is recommended to keep the group of youth participating in the curriculum small so there is plenty of time for rich discussion. Equally as important, evaluation tools need to be created to determine what change is taking place through the time spent working on the individual level. The following resources can assist you in building curricula and evaluation tools. The list is extensive so that different communities can build curricula that is most effective for the populations they serve.

Curricula
We suggest looking into the following curricula for programs to change individuals. Some are more focused on primary prevention than others, but all may offer useful activities.

  • Davis, R., Davison, P. & Safer, A. (1994). Healthy relationships: A violence-prevention curriculum. Nova Scotia: Men for Change.
    • Healthy Relationships has several subsections that address different topics related to violence prevention. These include: dealing with aggression, gender equality and media awareness, and forming healthy relationships.
    • Population: developed for high school but in Florida some have adapted it for middle school
  • Foshee, V. & Langwick, S. (2004). Safe dates: An adolescent dating abuse prevention curriculum. Center City, MN: Hazelden.
    • Safe Dates provides background on dating violence as well as prevention strategies such as communication. It also includes information on how to help friends, gender stereotypes, and defining caring relationships and dating abuse.
    • Population: high school
  • Katz, J. (1994). Mentors in violence prevention. Boston: Northeastern University's Center for the Study of Sport in Society.
    • Mentors in Violence Prevention uses the bystander approach to teach participants how everyone can get involved with preventing intimate partner violence. Through scenarios, participants discuss different components of IPV and discuss how they would respond as a bystander. Some examples include: battering, rape, alcohol and consent, and sexual harassment.
    • Population: developed for college students, includes adaptations and applications for high school
  • Kivel, P. & Creighton, A. (1997). Making the peace: A 15-session violence prevention curriculum for young people.Alameda, CA: Hunter House Publications.
    • Making the Peace asks participants to consider the different manifestations of violence in our culture. Some of the areas it focuses on are: the roots of violence; race, class, and gender: the difference that difference makes; and making the peace now.
    • Population: High school
  • Kivel, P. Young Men's Work
  • Moles, K. Teen Relationship Workbook (Wellness Reproductions and Publishing)
  • Myhand, M.N. & Kivel, P. (1998). Young women's lives. Center City, MN: Hazelden.
    • Young Women's Lives uses a strength-based, group approach to empower young women to create the lives they imagine. This curriculum is primarily an intervention tool, but many activities are salient to prevention.
    • Population: 11 - 15
  • Safe Place. (2008). Expect respect: A school-based program for preventing teen dating violence and promoting safe and healthy relationships. Austin, TX: Safe Place.
    • Expect Respect is a comprehensive prevention program designed to raise awareness of dating violence, teach skills for healthy relationships, develop youth leadership, and increase safety and respect on school campuses.
    • Population: developed for middle and high school
  • Schniedewind, N. & Davidson, E. (2006). Open minds to equality: A sourcebook of learning activities to affirm diversity and promote equity, 3rd ed. Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools.
    • Open Minds to Equality offers violence prevention activities across the grade levels, with specific opportunities for elementary levels. Topics include: developing skills for building trust and communication, developing skills for creative cooperation, examining new perspectives, discrimination, and making change.
    • Population: elementary
  • Sjostrom, L. & Stein, N. (1996). Bullyproof: A teacher's guide on teasing and bullying for use with fourth and fifth grade students. Wellesley, MA: Wellesley College Center for Research on Women.
    • Bullyproof looks at a variety of relationships in fourth & fifth graders' lives to explore bullying and sexual harassment.
    • Population: fourth and fifth grade
  • Stein, N. & Sjostrom, L. (1994). Flirting or hurting: A teacher's guide on student-to-student sexual harassment in schools. Wellesley, MA: NEA.
    • Flirting or Hurting includes 6-10 classroom lessons, suitable for Social Studies, English, Psychology, or Health Classes.
    • Population: appropriate for middle and high school
  • Stein, N. & Cappello, D. (1999). Gender violence/gender justice: An interdisciplinary guide for teachers of English, Literature, Social Studies, Psychology, Health, Peer Counseling, and Family and Consumer Sciences. Wellesley, MA: Wellesley College Center for Research on Women.
    • Gender Violence/Gender Justice uses literature to explore several topics related to IPV. These topics include: boundaries, friendships, violence, and courage.
    • Population: Appropriate for middle and high school
  • Vasquez, H., Myhand, M.N. & Creighton, A. (2003). Making allies, making friends: A curriculum for making the peace in middle school. Alameda, CA: Hunter House.
    • Making Allies, Making Friends gives middle school students an age-appropriate version of Making the Peace (see above). This curriculum includes expanded focus on: diversity and alliance building; understanding and alliances across race and ethnicity, gender differences, and different classes; and dealing with violence here and now.
    • Population: middle school

Books and other materials

  • "I Can Make My World a Safer Place: A Kid's Book about Stopping Violence"
    This book, which was written for adults to read with 6-11 year olds, is about the first steps in preventing, healing from and finding alternatives to violence. Topics include what to do about teasing and bullies, fights, gangs and weapons, anger, drugs and suicide, child abuse and domestic violence. www.paulkivel.com
  • "Making Allies, Making Friends: A Curriculum for Making the Peace in Middle School"
    Flexible, multi-track curriculum design has over 30 innovative, creative classroom sessions designed to prepare young people to build a healthy multi-cultural community and prevent violence. They address issues of race, class, gender and sexual identity that middle-schoolers face and can be adapted to the needs of many different school environments.www.paulkivel.com
  • "Making the Peace: A 15-Session Violence Prevention Curriculum for Young People"
    "Once again, the Oakland Men's Project leads the way in our field in creating a thoughtful, sensitive and user-friendly curriculum. Their comprehensive approach helps young people deal with the deeper more sensitive issues around violence in a caring safe and respectful manner." www.paulkivel.com
  • "Hardy Girls, Healthy Women,"
    Although many, if not most, national programs designed to support girls in the past 15 years have focused on self-esteem and other internal, psychological issues, HGHW is one of the few programs that addresses girls' lives in relational and social contexts. We believe that it is not the girls, but rather the culture in which they live that is in need of repair.
  • www.hardygirlshealthywomen.org
  • "Open Minds to Equality: A Sourcebook of Learning Activities to Affirm Diversity and Promote Equity,"
    Nancy Schneidewind & Ellen Davidson, Allyn and Bacon, www.abacon.com
  • "White Ribbon Campaign: Education And Action Kit"
    Updated in 2005, the perfect tool for the classroom and an excellent guide for teaching youth about violence against women. Now in four versions, Canadian Middle and Secondary and US Middle and Secondary, there is a kit to fit all of your educational needs. www.whiteribbon.ca
  • "Men Can Stop Rape"
    Visit this website to see the variety of tools and resources this D.C. based organization provides. There is information regarding the Strength Campaign, the new Campus Strength program, MOST Clubs and other tools for mobilizing young men to prevent violence against women. www.mencanstoprape.org
  • "Teacher's Guide: Interesting, Fun, and Effective Classroom Activities To Influence Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention"
    This guide was created as a part of the The National Teen Dating Violence Prevention Initiative and offers ideas for teen dating violence prevention activities in different classroom settings. www.fcadv.org/downloads/programs/primary prevention/Teachers Guide.pdf

Developing/adapting curricula
Definitions of two key processes that are important to apply carefully.

Adaptation is the process through which strategies are modified deliberately or accidentally in one of four ways:

  1. deletions or additions (enhancements) of strategy core components,
  2. modifications in the nature of the components that are included,
  3. changes in the manner or intensity of administration of core components,
  4. cultural and other modifications required by local circumstances (SAMHSA, 2002)

Refinement - Getting feedback on strategy materials from staff who would implement the strategy, experts, or representatives of the universal or selected population.

Media literacy
Intimate partner violence is supported by many societal-level influences. One of the major ways that this happen is through media, including images and language. Primary prevention addresses media literacy by raising people's awareness about the messages we receive through media. By becoming a critical consumer of media, people can make choices about the kinds of media they consume as well as advocate for change. The resources listed below include examples of media literacy strategies as well as tools.

Media literacy is the ability to analyze or "take apart" the messages in various forms of media including television, music videos, movies, magazines, video games, etc. Now more than ever youth are bombarded with these messages which can influence their knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs (KABBs) about intimate partner violence. This influence can be negative by way of reinforcing rigid gender roles, objectifying women & girls, and by condoning violence. In contrast, media also has the potential to positively influence youth by promoting healthy relationships and gender equality. We have included media literacy in this toolkit in order to provide you with useful information and resources on how to engage youth to critically think about the messages they receive from the media as well as information on how to encourage them to become more conscious consumers.

Working with Peers and Families (Relationship Level)

  1. Risk Factors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence
  2. Strategies for Changing Relationship Risk Factors

Prevention work requires we target all levels of the social ecology.

While working on all levels of the social ecology, it is important to remember that change can be slow moving and is sometimes not linear. After spending time, energy and pouring your dedication into the lives of the young people you are working with on the individual level, remember that they will be going home, hanging out with friends, and interacting with teachers and other adult community members. In some cases, it will be difficult for some youth to stand true to everything they have learned in our individual level programs. Stepping outside of the social norms will result in social consequences and until prevention work infuses more of the community. This work will take time and steadfast dedication which will ultimately result in lowering relationship-level risk factors.

At the relationship level, we need to focus on building in support for the youth we are directly impacting on the individual level. The goal of this level is to have parents, siblings, teachers, neighbors, business owners and friends begin to interact with each other in ways that support equality, responsibility, accountability and appropriate communication in relationships. One way to reach these members of our society would be to have the youth create presentations to this end and have them invite people in their lives to attend. Youth messaging is a very powerful way to impact the relationships people have with each other. The following examples and resources will help you to engage members of society in supporting the development of healthy, equitable relationships especially for young people.

Risk Factors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence

Far more is known about risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration than victimization. Also, prevention programs appear far more successful at preventing perpetration than victimization. Perhaps this is because perpetrators are ultimately responsible for their actions, and it is difficult for another person to anticipate and control an abuser's actions. The World Health Organization identified several risk factors associated with a man's risk for abusing his partner (Krug, Dahlberg, Mercy, Zwi, & Lozano, 2002). Based on the same research evidence, the Kansas Coalition Against Domestic Violence identified additional risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration. Still, these risk factors likely represent an incomplete list. Several risk factors at the relationship level of the social ecological model are:

  • Abuses of power in relationships
  • Dominance and control of the relationship by one partner over the other
  • Male dominance in the family
  • Poor family functioning
  • Psychological violence

Strategies for Changing Relationship Risk Factors

Curricula and Approaches
On an individual and relationship level, the bonds between family members and peers must be focused on and strengthened. Creating a positive environment, conducive to educating and increasing knowledge is imperative to strengthening families and in turn strengthening communities. The activities should engage both and provide resources and tools to help increase knowledge to promote healthy relationships. One approach to changing culture and behaviors among peers and others is bystander intervention.

Some example strategies and resources are:

  • Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) www.sportinsociety.org
  • Expect Respect Leadership Curriculum www.safeplace.org
  • Safe Dates sessions on helping friends
  • Doorways Training Manuals http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/wid/doorways.html
  • "Please Stand Up!" is an interactive CD-ROM for middle and high school students, educators, parents and community members to help eradicate school violence by showing you the best way to handle a variety of dangerous and self-destructive situations. www.pleasestandup.org
  • Levy, B. & Giggins, P.O. (1995). What parents need to know about dating violence: Advice and support for helping your teen. Berkeley, CA: Seal Press.
  • Creighton, A. & Kivel, P. (1993). Helping teens stop violence: A practical guide for counselors, educators, and parents. Alameda, CA: Hunter House. A multi-racial, step-by-step program that empowers young people to prevent violence.www.paulkivel.com

Several Teen Dating Violence Campaigns address peer behaviors and acceptance of risk factors:

Media literacy
Intimate partner violence is supported by many societal-level influences. One of the major ways that this happen is through media, including images and language. Primary prevention addresses media literacy by raising people's awareness about the messages we receive through media. By becoming a critical consumer of media, people can make choices about the kinds of media they consume as well as advocate for change. The resources listed below include examples of media literacy strategies as well as tools.

Working with Communities (Community Level)

  1. Risk Factors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence
  2. Strategies and Approaches
  3. Community Action Team (CAT)
  4. Policy and Organizational Practice Change

Working toward change at the community level is essential in supporting lasting individual change as well as lasting social change. The community level involves the local context such as community norms about relationships and violence. Community settings include neighborhoods, schools, and workplaces.

Risk Factors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence

Far more is known about risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration than victimization. Also, prevention programs appear far more successful at preventing perpetration than victimization. Perhaps this is because perpetrators are ultimately responsible for their actions, and it is difficult for another person to anticipate and control an abuser's actions. The World Health Organization identified several risk factors associated with a man's risk for abusing his partner (Krug, Dahlberg, Mercy, Zwi, & Lozano, 2002). Based on the same research evidence, the Kansas Coalition Against Domestic Violence identified additional risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration. Still, these risk factors likely represent an incomplete list. Several risk factors at the community level of the social ecological model are:

  • Low social capital, especially women
  • Negative portrayal of women in the media
  • Poverty, especially among women
  • Weak community sanctions against domestic violence perpetrators

Strategies and Approaches

Community Awareness
"Days of Respect: Organizing a School-wide Violence Prevention Program" Step-by-step instructions for putting together an event that brings together students, parents, teachers and community leaders for a common goal: preventing violence and creating an atmosphere of respect in school so that everyone can feel safe. www.paulkivel.com

Community Readiness Community Readiness: Ability and willingness to implement strategies. Readiness is a continuum from no knowledge, to a community's awareness of IPV, to interest in preventing IPV, to motivation to take part in prevention, to willingness to change or implement specific strategies. SAMSHA's nine levels of readiness and ways to improve it:http://captus.samhsa.gov/southwest/documents/CommunityReadiness-quickhandout.pdf

Community Mobilization
Primary prevention work must be integrated into a community infrastructure. Community can mean different things in different places; it may mean a geographic location, an age group, a population, etc. Regardless of how community is defined, our goal is to involve as many diverse partners as possible in our work. Because we are seeking social change and not just individual change, we really need buy-in from a variety of people, organizations, and institutions. Community mobilization is an innovative strategy that is developed with a community. In other words, what works for one community may not work for another, but that's okay. The resources listed below are intended to provide examples of successful community mobilization strategies as well as suggest ideas for mobilization.

Popular Education

Youth Organizing

Community Buy-in
[coming soon]

Check with your local city/town parks and recreation to see what is going on in your community, be aware of related activities.

Community Action Team (CAT)

A community action team is a group of people who are involved in a community wide effort to prevent intimate partner violence before it occurs. The community action team should include "non-traditional partners" such as: School board representatives, members of the local faith community, and other stakeholders who work with youth. The community action team may initially be led by a representative from the local domestic violence center but the members should ultimately take ownership of the group and its mission to prevent intimate partner violence. The structure of the community action team may vary. The group should come to a consensus on the group norms and structure that work best for its members.

Community Actions Teams are an essential piece to the overall success of prevention plans for any cause. In the case of intimate partner violence, they are the core of long-term success of ending violence. With intimate partner violence being seen in large part as a secretive family matter, community action teams are charged with bringing the issue to the public as well as changing the social norms that support men's violence against women. Community Action Teams are a great way for spreading messages through the community that denounce the use of control and violence in intimate relationships. The following resources will help you to create, train and sustain community members on your action teams.

Evaluation
"A Guide to Measuring Policy and Advocacy" By Reisman, Jane; Gienapp, Anne; Stachowaik, Sarah. The Annie E. Casey Foundation commissioned this guide to help determine meaningful ways to measure and evaluate the impact of its advocacy and public policy grantmaking. This guide also serves as a broad call to grantmakers to build and advance the field of evaluation in this area. http://www.aecf.org/KnowledgeCenter/Publications.aspx?pubguid={4977C910-1A39-44BD-A106-1FC8D81EB792}

Policy and Organizational Practice Change

In order for primary prevention to take hold, we also must incorporate it into our policy and organizational practice. This entails examining our current policy as well as creating new policy when needed. It also includes providing the support, such as training, for staff and organizational practice change. The following resources are included as examples of policies.

Working to Change Societal Norms and Values (Societal Level)

  1. Risk Factors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence
  2. Strategies for Change at the Societal Level

Primary prevention includes working to change societal norms and values. One immediate example is gender stereotypes. We must consider the role that attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs such as boys are "tough," girls are "emotional," boys are better leaders than girls, men should be the head of the household, etc. play in supporting intimate partner violence. The resources listed below are intended to provide examples of organizations working to change social norms and values as well as to suggest how you might be able to do that.

Risk Factors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence

Far more is known about risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration than victimization. Also, prevention programs appear far more successful at preventing perpetration than victimization. Perhaps this is because perpetrators are ultimately responsible for their actions, and it is difficult for another person to anticipate and control an abuser's actions. The World Health Organization identified several risk factors associated with a man's risk for abusing his partner (Krug, Dahlberg, Mercy, Zwi, & Lozano, 2002). Based on the same research evidence, the Kansas Coalition Against Domestic Violence identified additional risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration. Still, these risk factors likely represent an incomplete list. Several risk factors the societal level of the social ecological model are:

  • Historical and societal patterns that glorify violence against women
  • Institutional structures that promote unequal power between men and women
  • Men's gender-role socialization processes
  • Social norms supportive of violence
  • Traditional gender norms
  • Women's gender-role socialization processes

Strategies for Change at the Societal Level

Strategies to change societal level risk factors are newer and less well studied for IPV primary prevention. Below are several types of strategies that have been useful in related fields, such as substance abuse prevention. The following studies are examples to illustrate what such a strategy may look like.

Community Mobilization & Collaboration
Manley, M., Lynn, W., Epps, R. P., Grande, D., Glynn, T., & Shopland, D. (1997). The American stop smoking intervention study for cancer prevention: An overview. Tobacco Control, 6 (Supplement 2), 5-11.

  • Scope of study: American smokers
  • Strategy: State health departments developed and mobilized local coalitions to carry out program activities. Study included policy intervention (increase in cigarette price) and mass media advertising.
  • Results: In 1996 (ASSIST began in 1989), Data suggests that community mobilization and media advertizing decreased consumption, over and above the impact of the increase in cigarette price.

Entertainment Education
Whittier, D. K., Kennedy, M. G., Lawrence, J. S. S., Seeley, S., & Beck, V. (2005). Embedding health messages into entertainment television: Effect on gay men's response to a syphilis outbreak. Journal of Health Communication, 10, 251-259.

  • Scope of study: Gay men, STDs
  • Strategy: Two episodes of ER were developed and broadcast that included a storyline about a gay man diagnosed with Syphilis. Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action.
  • Results: Men who viewed the program were more likely to report personal intentions to get tested for Syphilis and to encourage their friends to get tested compared to men who did not view the two episodes. However, men who viewed the episodes were also more likely to be older, White, and have more education compared to the men who didn't watch the program.

Internet-Based Education
Vinokur, A. D., Merion, R. M., Couper, M. P., Jones, E. G., & Dong, Y. (2006). Educational web-based intervention for high school students to increase knowledge and promote positive attitudes toward organ donation. Health Education and Behavior, 33(6), 773-786.

  • Scope of study: High school students in Michigan, organ donation
  • Strategy: Used the "Journey" web-site to teach students about organ donation. Students were exposed to the 7-page website at one point in time, which took 30 minutes to read through. Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior.
  • Results: Knowledge increased in the experimental condition from 73% to 84%. 21.8% of participants exposed to the Journey website contacted the donor registry, versus 15.7% of controls. The mean rating of pro-donation attitudes increased in the experimental condition from 4.96 to 5.48.

Mass media advertising
Gadomski, A.M., Tripp, M., Wolff, D. A., Lewis, C., and Jenkins, P. (2001). Impact of Rural Domestic Violence Prevention Campaign. Journal of Rural Health, 17(3), 266-277.

  • Scope of study: General population in a county, domestic violence
  • Strategy: 7-month media campaign to change attitudes and intention about domestic violence in a rural community. Included radio advertisements, posters, mailings to libraries and clergy, printed media articles, printed advertisements, and health facility modifications.
  • Results: Increased slogan recognition and behavioral intentions among people intervention county. Hotline calls doubled. DV Rates unchanged.
  • There are similar results in the child maltreatment field (Andrews, McLeese, and Curran, 1995)

Social marketing
Perry, C. L., Williams, C.L., Komro, K.A., et al. (2002). Project Northland: Long-term outcomes of community action to reduce adolescent alcohol use. Health Education Research, 17(1), 117-132.

  • Scope of study: Adolescents in the U.S., alcohol
  • Strategy: "Peer action teams" developed different projects to influence their peers not to drink. Media included printed materials such as calendars, newsletters, and posters targeting both adolescents and adults. Based on Theory of Triadic Influence.
  • Results: Students were significantly less likely to increase alcohol use to binge drink.

Policies
Bergen-Cico, D., Urtz, A., & Barreto, C. (2004). Longitudinal assessment of the effectiveness of environmental management and enforcement strategies on college student substance abuse behaviors. NASPA Journal 41(2), 235-262.

  • Scope of study: College students, substance abuse
  • Strategy: Reorganization of the University Judicial System, new sanctions for substance-abuse related violations of the Code of Student Conduct, parental notification policy. Based on PRECEDE-PROCEED model.
  • Results: From 1998 to 2002, 29.2% decrease in alcohol violations and a 24.6% decline in overall caseloads. Drug violations unaffected. Consistent downward trend of substance-abuse behavior post intervention.

Resources

  1. Reading/viewing list
  2. Prevention Links

Reading/viewing list

Also visit the Gainesville, FL reading and viewing list at: http://gainesvilledelta.org/biblio.html

Books and articles

  • Ben Atherton-Zeman. (n.d.). Minimizing the damage: Male accountability in stopping men's violence against women. The Voice: The Journal of the Battered Women's Movement, Spring 2009, 8-13.http://www.preventconnect.org/attachments/2009/Atherton-Zeman_men_article.pdf
  • "Power and Possibilities" a publication of the Ms. Foundation and Collaborative Fund for Youth-led Social Change, September 2003. Article available in PDF at www.msfoundation.org
  • Kivel, Paul, "Boys will be Men: Raising Our Sons for Courage, Caring and Community," New Society Publishers, 1999.www.paulkivel.com
  • "Community Mobilization Toolkit", Transforming Communities: Creating Safety and Justice for Women and Girls, Including "Multicultural Alliance Building", Marin Abused Women's Services. www.transformcommunities.org
  • Berkowitz, Alan D. "The Social Norms Approach to Violence Prevention" www.alanberkowitz.com
  • Gladwell, Malcolm, "The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference", Back Bay Books, 2002.
  • Kivel, Paul, "Are You Mentoring for Social Justice?" 2004. Article available in PDF at www.paulkivel.com
  • Moyer, Bill, "Doing Democracy: the MAP Model for Organizing Social Movements", New Society Publishers, 2001.
  • Douglas, U., Bathrick, D., Perry, P. A. (2008). Deconstructing Male Violence Against Women: The Men Stopping Violence Community-Accountability Model. Violence Against Women, see reference

Non-Fiction Books about Teen Dating Violence:

  • Levy, B. (2006). In love and in danger: A teen's guide to breaking free from abusive relationships. Berkeley, CA: Seal Press.
  • Levy, B. (1998). Dating violence: Young women in danger. Berkeley, CA: Seal Press.
  • Levy, B. & Giggins, P.O. (1995). What parents need to know about dating violence: Advice and support for helping your teen. Berkeley, CA: Seal Press.
  • Creighton, A. & Kivel, P. (1993). Helping teens stop violence: A practical guide for counselors, educators, and parents. Alameda, CA: Hunter House.

Non-Fiction Books about Teen Dating Violence:

  • Flinn, A. (2002). Breathing underwater. New York: Harper
  • Dessen, S. (2004). Dreamland. New York: Puffin.
  • Anderson, L.H. (1999). Speak. New York: Puffin.

Video and Audio

  • "Breaking Out of 'The Man Box'" radically challenges the socialization of men by examining the social norms, culture and traditional images of manhood that has created an environment that supports, tolerates and often encourages men's violence against women. The founders of A Call To Men provide concrete solutions and practical approaches toward ending men's violence against women. These men provide great insight into the construct of sexism and courageously challenge the privileges and entitlements given to men. This highly sought after educational tool is unique in its ability to be affirming and respectful to the experiences of women while expressing genuine care and hope for men. http://www.acalltomen.com/
  • "Killing Us Softly 3" Jean Kilbourne continues her groundbreaking analysis of advertising's depiction of women in this most recent update of her pioneering Killing Us Softly series. In fascinating detail, Kilbourne decodes an array of print and television advertisements to reveal a pattern of disturbing and destructive gender stereotypes. Her analysis challenges us to consider the relationship between advertising and broader issues of culture, identity, sexism, and gender violence.www.mediaed.org
  • "Tough Guise: Violence, Media and the Crisis in Masculinity" with Jackson Katz, is the first educational video geared toward college and high school students to systematically examine the relationship between pop-cultural imagery and the social construction of masculine identities in the U.S. at the dawn of the 21st century. Jackson Katz is one of America's leading anti-sexist male activists. An educator, author and filmmaker, he is internationally recognized for his groundbreaking work in gender violence prevention education with men and boys. This exciting new media literacy tool-- utilizing racially diverse subject matter and examples-- will enlighten and provoke students (both males and females) to evaluate their own participation in the culture of contemporary masculinity. www.mediaed.org
  • "Hip-Hop: Beyond Beats & Rhymes" provides a riveting examination of manhood, sexism, and homophobia in hip-hop culture. Critically acclaimed for its fearless engagement with issues of race, gender violence, and the corporate exploitation of youth culture. Director Byron Hurt, former star college quarterback, longtime hip-hop fan, and gender violence prevention educator, conceived the documentary as a "loving critique" of a number of disturbing trends in the world of rap music. He pays tribute to hip-hop while challenging the rap music industry to take responsibility for glamorizing destructive, deeply conservative stereotypes of manhood. www.mediaed.org
  • "Spin the Bottle: Sex, Lies and Alcohol," offers an indispensable critique of the role that contemporary popular culture plays in glamorizing excessive drinking and high-risk behaviors. Award-winning media critics Jackson Katz and Jean Kilbourne contrast these distorted representations with the often disturbing and dangerous ways that alcohol consumption affects the lives of real young men and women. Illustrating their analysis with numerous examples, Katz and Kilbourne decode the power and influence these seductive media images have in shaping gender identity, which is linked to the use of alcohol. Nowhere is this link more cause for concern than on America's college campuses. www.mediaed.org
  • "It Takes a Team: Making Sports Safe for LGBT Athletes and Coaches" This educational "kit"--which includes a 15-minute video, a discussion and resource guide, an informational poster, and colorful "Safe Space" stickers--is intended to help coaches/teachers, parents, and school administrators educate students/athletes about the harmful effects of homophobia and asks the question, "How can we make sure that people in athletics are evaluated, not based on their sexual orientation or gender expression, but on their individual character and accomplishments?" The DVD includes the video and digital versions of the educational materials for easy printing. www.mediaed.org
  • "Game Over: Gender, Race and Violence in Video Games" is the first educational documentary to address the fastest growing segment of the media through engaging questions of gender, race and violence. Game Over offers a refreshing dialogue about the complex and controversial topic of video game violence, and is designed to encourage high school and college students to think critically about the video games they play. www.mediaed.org
  • "Please Stand Up!" is an interactive CD-ROM for middle and high school students, educators, parents and community members to help eradicate school violence by showing you the best way to handle a variety of dangerous and self-destructive situations. www.pleasestandup.org
  • "Wrestling with Manhood" is the first educational program to pay attention to the enormous popularity of professional wrestling among male youth, addressing its relationship to real-life violence and probing the social values that sustain it as a powerful cultural force. Richly illustrating their analysis with numerous examples, Sut Jhally and Jackson Katz - the award-winning creators of the videos Dreamworlds and Tough Guise, respectively - offer a new way to think about the enduring problems of men's violence against women and bullying in our schools. www.mediaed.org
  • http://www.uhavetheright.net/listen.html

Prevention Links

Prevention Educators

Related Prevention work

Related Topics: